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Paternity Testing

Paternity testing uses DNA analysis to ascertain whether or not a man is the father of a particular child. A DNA sample can simply be collected by swabbing the inside of the cheek of the mouth to obtain a cheek cell sample of both the child and man, since DNA is found in all the cells of the body. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test is used to analyze the DNA sample in the lab. The DNA in the test tube is separated from the sample by removing all the other components of the cell including proteins. The PCR process utilizes DNA polymerase to replicate copies of specific DNA strands. There are 3 steps in the PCR process:

1. Separation of the DNA strands is done by heating the material to 90 -96 0C in order to denature the specific genetic material into two double helix DNA chains. When the two strands separate, each strand is used as a template when a copy is made by DNA polymerase.

2. At 55 0C, a short sequence of nucleotides attaches to the ends of the DNA strands.

3. The temperature of the test tube is increased to 75 0C, and a complete copy of each DNA strand is made (replication).

The specific target loci of the father and child DNA sample is examined and compared. Two numbers are generated one will match the biological mother’s numbers and the other the biological father’s numbers.

Probability of paternity value of 99.99% means that the man tested is the biological father of the child.

Probability of paternity value of 0% means that the man tested is not the biological father of the child.

-nandi and marissa


Double Strand of the awesomeness!


wordle showing the relevant terms for nucleotides and nucleic acids




 Wikipedia. “Parental testing.” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014). “How DNA Fingerprinting Works.” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014). “Paternity Testing.” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014).

Holy Kaw!. “17 interesting facts about DNA.” 2010. (accessed 6 Apr 2014). “And you thought 4G was fast….” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014)

This is a bit……… Puzzling




l puzzle-page-001


Try out these puzzles, if you wanna.. We don’t care, we’re driving Cadillacs in our dreams…..     -Lorde



Yes guys lipids can be used to make waxes such as the structure of bees’ honeycombs.



Can you make candles out of your ear wax?

No…u can’t but if you pick out some earwax and smell it that’s lipids you’re smelling guys and I’m not too sure why you would want to smell it :/ Anyways it protects the insides of your ears.


Plants have wax too?!

Duh! Cutin which is found on the surface of leaves which help protect the plant and prevent evaporation from their leaves.


Table showing the enzymes used in the TCA cycle

Substrates Product Enzyme
Oxaloacetate + Acetyl CoA + H2O Citrate Citrate synthase (irreversible)
Citrate Isocitrate Aconitase (reversible)
Isocitrate α-ketoglutarate Isocitrate dehydrogenase (irreversible)
α-ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (irreversible)
Succinyl CoA Succinate Succinyl- CoA synthetase
Succinate Fumerate Succinate dehydrogenase
Fumerate Malate Fumerase
Malate Oxaloacetate Malate dehydrogenase (reversible)

Leonardo DaVinci’s depiction of the Electron Transport Chain




etc4 “Animation: Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis (Quiz 1).” 2014. (accessed 24 Mar 2014).

Glycolysis: An Overview video review

This is a concise video giving you a gist of the basics of glycolysis.

It starts off giving their explanation of what glycolysis is. They define it as a series of 10 reactions which break down sugars like glucose into 3C molecules called pyruvate and it also produces ATP and NADH and all of this occurs in the cytosol of the cell. They then take you through the steps of the first phase. They explain that this stage uses energy to get from step 1, which is glucose, to step 5 which is Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

They then move on to phase 2 saying this phase produces 4 ATP’s 2 in step 7 and 2 in step 10. It also mentions how the steps involved with ATP production and loss are catalysed by a kinase. The video stresses that the product formed in steps 6 through 10 are formed for EACH G3P molecule generated in steps 4 and 5. This gives you an idea of how many of each product is produced seeing as the number is doubled. They finish the video by saying the net amount of product gotten is 2NADH and 2 ATP’s because 2 ATP’s were spent in the first half of the reaction.

  YouTube. “Glycolysis: An Overview.” 2014. (accessed 17 Mar 2014).

Know your Glycolytic enzymes

We all know that in glycolysis there are 10 reactions controlled by 10 enzymes. These are:

Phase 1                                                                          

  • Hexokinase: It catalyses alpha D-Glucose and ATP to Glucose-6-Phosphate (G6P) and ADP by phosphorylation.
  • Phosphoglucose isomerase: This catalyses G6P to its isomer Fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). This occurs by changing the carbonyl oxygen from the C1 position on the G6P to the C2 position on F6P
  •  Phosphofructokinase: Catalyses F6P and ATP to Fructose-1, 6-Bisphosphate (F1, 6PP) and ADP.
  • Fructose-Bisphosphate aldolase: Catalyses F1,6PP to split into  Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate (DHAP) and Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate (G3P)
  • Triosephosphate isomerase: This catalyses DHAP to turn into G3P because only G3P can be used in the reaction.

Phase 2

  • Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase:  Catalyses G3P, NAD and Pi to 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate (1,3 BPG), NADH and H+
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase: Catalyses 1,3 BPG and ADP to 3-Phosphoglycerate and ATP
  • Phosphoglycerate mutase: Catalyses 3PG to 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG)
  • Enolase: Catalyses 2PG to Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and H2O.
  • Pyruvate kinase: It catalyses PEP and ADP to Pyruvate and ATP.


Diagram showing Glycolysis

Diagram showing Glycolysis

Untitled. 2014. : (accessed 17 Mar 2014).

10 Glycolysis Facts

1. Glycolysis aka the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP pathway) was discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof and Jakub Karol Parnas.

2. The Glycolysis process is so old that it has probably been around before oxygen made its debut in the atmosphere.

3. Glyco –glucose Lysis- splits. It basically is the conversion of one 6-carbon glucose molecule into two 3-carbon sugars called pyruvate through a series of enzymatic reactions.

4. It involves two phases, the Preparatory phase or the energy investment phase and the energy generation phase or the payoff phase.

5. In the investment phase, initially 2 ATP molecules are invested in glycolysis.  The payoff is the generation of 4 ATP molecules so a profit or net gain of 2 ATP molecules is made.

6. Glycolysis involves 10 reactions each being catalyzed by one of ten enzymes, in the following order Hexokinase, Phosphohexose Isomerase, Phospho- fructokinase -1, Aldose, Triose phosphate isomerase, Glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate, Phosphoglycerate kinase, Phosphoglycerate mutase, Enolase and finally Pyruvate kinase.

7. It occurs in plant and animal cells and the cells of microbes.

8. It occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and the cytosol of eukaryotes.

9. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolysis causes cells to produce ATP. This process is called fermentation.

10. Under aerobic conditions, glycolysis is the first phase of cellular respiration.


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