Paternity Testing

Paternity testing uses DNA analysis to ascertain whether or not a man is the father of a particular child. A DNA sample can simply be collected by swabbing the inside of the cheek of the mouth to obtain a cheek cell sample of both the child and man, since DNA is found in all the cells of the body. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test is used to analyze the DNA sample in the lab. The DNA in the test tube is separated from the sample by removing all the other components of the cell including proteins. The PCR process utilizes DNA polymerase to replicate copies of specific DNA strands. There are 3 steps in the PCR process:

1. Separation of the DNA strands is done by heating the material to 90 -96 0C in order to denature the specific genetic material into two double helix DNA chains. When the two strands separate, each strand is used as a template when a copy is made by DNA polymerase.

2. At 55 0C, a short sequence of nucleotides attaches to the ends of the DNA strands.

3. The temperature of the test tube is increased to 75 0C, and a complete copy of each DNA strand is made (replication).

The specific target loci of the father and child DNA sample is examined and compared. Two numbers are generated one will match the biological mother’s numbers and the other the biological father’s numbers.

Probability of paternity value of 99.99% means that the man tested is the biological father of the child.

Probability of paternity value of 0% means that the man tested is not the biological father of the child.

-nandi and marissa


One True Pairing






tune in next week to see the epic season finale of My One True Pairing…….
don’t actually come back…. this isn’t a real TV show. i would understand if u thought so because we’re just that creative but naaw, we done here. you know what, you could leave a like if u wanna, only if u wanna. Ok i feel bad for leaving you guys with a cliff hanger so i’ll just tell out the story. SPOILER ALERT!!! Adenine gonna choose Thymine cause he more stable and stuff, plus Uracil is kind of a douche and he cheated on her before so she would be kinda stupid to go back with him. And Cytosine gonna deny Guanine, not because she doesn’t love him but because she wanna experience the world outside of the relationship, which if you ask me makes absolutely no sense because she never gonna do any better than him . Anywhore disregard everything you just read here because it has absolutely nothing to do with base pairing and i probably just wasted like 3 minutes of alot of yall’s time.

love, peace and chicken grease -Ren


super fact sunday

  • Humans and cabbage has about 40-50 % similar DNA

shocked patrick

  • If you uncoil your DNA, it would be long enough to reach to the moon and back 6000 times!
  • Boys…here’s a fun fact for you. A single sperm has 37.5MB of DNA information in it. When it is ejaculated this represents a transfer of data around 1,587GB in 3 seconds…WELL! That’s fast…


  • It would take someone to type 60 words per minute and 8 hours a day anddd 50 years to type the human genome..daymmmm

banana dna

dna ugly

Double Strand of the awesomeness!


wordle showing the relevant terms for nucleotides and nucleic acids




 Wikipedia. “Parental testing.” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014). “How DNA Fingerprinting Works.” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014). “Paternity Testing.” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014).

Holy Kaw!. “17 interesting facts about DNA.” 2010. (accessed 6 Apr 2014). “And you thought 4G was fast….” 2014. (accessed 6 Apr 2014)

This is a bit……… Puzzling




l puzzle-page-001


Try out these puzzles, if you wanna.. We don’t care, we’re driving Cadillacs in our dreams…..     -Lorde



Yes guys lipids can be used to make waxes such as the structure of bees’ honeycombs.



Can you make candles out of your ear wax?

No…u can’t but if you pick out some earwax and smell it that’s lipids you’re smelling guys and I’m not too sure why you would want to smell it :/ Anyways it protects the insides of your ears.


Plants have wax too?!

Duh! Cutin which is found on the surface of leaves which help protect the plant and prevent evaporation from their leaves.


Oleic acid in insect repellent

Oleic acid is an example of a subgroup of lipids known as fatty acids. The article ‘ Effectiveness of Oleic Acid as a Bug Repellent against the Rice Flour Beetle’ describes an investigation into the function of oleic acid as an insect repellent. This was done by observing the effect of the presence of oleic acid on the behaviour of rice flour beetles with respect to rice flour, a favourite food of theirs.

Oleic acid is a known chemical released in the form of pheromones by certain insects upon death. Insects identify this hormone by its scent, and it signifies death and the possibility of disease to them. Insects avoid the source of this scent and so oleic acid is an effective repellent. Despite the effect it has on insects, it smells no worse than cooking oil to humans, and is also considered nutritious. This and its cost makes oleic acid a possible solution to the threat of insects attacking an infecting grain sources for humans.

In the article by Suman Mulumudi, the described experiment involves samples of either pure rice flour or rice flour mixed with oleic acid separately being made available to a number of rice flour beetles. The described behaviour of the beetles reflected the expectations, as the samples without oleic acid were attacked constantly, while the samples without were attacked occasionally, with the beetles moving away quickly after, expressing their distaste for the additional ingredient, and giving the flour samples a berth.

The article expresses that the experiment successfully illustrated the effectiveness of the oleic acid in repelling the beetles, though an alternative method would need to be found than mixing the oleic acid into the flour that would be later consumed by humans. Means such as a gelatinous cube or packet of oleic acid to saturate the air within flour containers with the scent were suggested as possibilities, and if applied, they may very well greatly affect the success in preserving flour and other grain food sources from these pests.


References :



Drawing showing the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle

Table showing the enzymes used in the TCA cycle

Substrates Product Enzyme
Oxaloacetate + Acetyl CoA + H2O Citrate Citrate synthase (irreversible)
Citrate Isocitrate Aconitase (reversible)
Isocitrate α-ketoglutarate Isocitrate dehydrogenase (irreversible)
α-ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (irreversible)
Succinyl CoA Succinate Succinyl- CoA synthetase
Succinate Fumerate Succinate dehydrogenase
Fumerate Malate Fumerase
Malate Oxaloacetate Malate dehydrogenase (reversible)

Leonardo DaVinci’s depiction of the Electron Transport Chain




etc4 “Animation: Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis (Quiz 1).” 2014. (accessed 24 Mar 2014).

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